Next Giant Leap

It looks like we’re about to become a multiplanetary species in a matter of 10-15 years. Would you choose to risk and become a part of a history as one of the first settlers arriving on Mars or would you wait until it gets safer? What would you take with you to kill boredom on a months long trip?

andrewraderAndrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

The answer to that question depends on the specific circumstances, but I certainly wouldn’t rule out going myself if given the opportunity.

I’d play a lot of board games in computerized form (hopefully some turn-based ones with friends at home). I can do that for weeks on end and be perfectly happy.

sethshostakSeth Shostak (Senior Astronomer and Director of the Center for SETI Research at SETI Institute)

Of course I’d love to go into space, but who knows if they’d TAKE me!


imageNicole Guggliucci (“Noisy astronomer”, blogger, educator, post-doc)

You know, when I was younger than I am now, I’d say, “sign me up!” But I think today I’d pass since I like the cool stuff I’m doing here on Earth. When they start needing astronomy professors on Mars, then I’ll go, with the caveat that my dog has to come, too! As for boredom… I have a huge to-read list on my Kindle, so I’m all ready for that. 🙂

frasercain1Fraser Cain (publisher at, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

Although I’d love to take a safe vacation on Mars, I really love Planet Earth. Living on Mars will be a constant struggle, and that takes a special kind of person, willing to take the risks to push humanity forward. Anyone will to step forward, and is aware of the risks has my support. But personally, I haven’t even finished exploring Earth yet.

paulcarrPaul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

In the unlikely event that I could qualify to go on an early Mars Mission, it is not the risk that would deter me, even though I regard the risks as considerable. The dangers, it seems to me, are roughly comparable to those faced by countless generations of humans before us when they struck out in search of new lands and new freedoms. There are risks of disease, deprivation, and exposure to harsh environments. I have little doubt that at least some of the early Mars pioneers will meet an untimely death. As Geoffrey Landis wrote in his novel Mars Crossing, Mars is for heroes. I believe it eventually will become much more repeatable and safer, but the wait might be too long. I think there will a surplus of volunteers, even after the first deaths. Even those who successfully establish colonies and begin to raise families on Mars will find it tough going with many challenges. I believe the early Mars generations will genetically engineer themselves to adapt better, as well as their plants, and perhaps even their animals.

To kill boredom on the long trip, of course the younger crew members will immerse themselves in VR environments and play games all day when not working out on the treadmill. However, we older folks who remember rotary dial phones and manual transmissions – we will immerse ourselves in VR environments and play games all day.

Bright spots on Ceres

When Dawn spacecaft arrived at Ceres we were all baffled by the bright spots on the surface of dwarf planet. I asked our panel about their predictions what those bright spots might be. What fascinating things will New Horizons find when it arrives at Pluto?
Seth Shostak (Senior Astronomer and Director of the Center for SETI Research at SETI Institute)

No one knows what the bright spots on Ceres are, but my bet would be some sort of ice, producing a “specular reflection” that looks exceptionally bright. These objects contain a lot of water of course, and that water’s going to be frozen, so the ice hypothesis seems reasonable, if perhaps dull. Pluto is larger than Ceres, and consequently will have a greater amount of internal heat generated by the slow radioactive decay of substances in its interior. That heat could occasionally break through to the surface in the form of icy geysers, much as occurs on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. If so, the dead ice ball image many people have of Pluto could be enlivened by some real drama. It’s an unknown world, and in the unknown there’s always plenty of opportunity for surprise.

Fraser Cain (publisher at, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

It’s important to understand that the spots look bright because the contrast on Ceres has been cranked up so high so they look like spots of light. But they’re really just about as bright as ice compared to the dark asphalt landscape of Ceres. And that’s what I think they are; nothing more than regions of ice on the surface of Ceres. Of course, that makes them incredibly interesting. Why are they just in craters? How did they form? Are they ancient, or are new ones forming all the time? The more time Dawn spends, the more we’ll learn, and I’m really glad the spacecraft made this journey in the first place.
The greatest part about all of these missions is the discovery of things we never expected. Just like the white spots on Ceres, New Horizons is going to find completely unexpected features on Pluto, which will have us all arguing until the next mission is sent to Pluto.

Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)
High reflective material, some kind of ice? For Pluto, learn about the composition of outer solar system objects for our system and others. It goes back to the formation of our solar system. That’s a very old ice cube out there.