Matthew Greenhouse joins the panel

Astronomy/Finest is proud to announce a new panelist: Matthew Greenhouse.

Matthew Greenhouse is an astrophysicist working for over 20 years at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. He is responsible for the science instrument payload on the James Webb Space Telescope.

Charity 2.0

Back in June 2015 we created a list of charities worth supporting. As it's always a good time to support organizations that are changing the world for better we're doing it again. 
Abigail Harrison (Aspiring astronaut & scientist, founder and spokesperson for The Mars Generation)

TheMarsGeneration.org which is a nonprofit setup by myself and a team of astronauts, engineers and others. The mission is to excite and educate students and adults about the importance of human space exploration and STEM education to the future of humanity.

The organisation is now in its second year of operation. It is 100% volunteer driven, has provided 10 students with financial need full paid space camp scholarships in 2016 and will do the same for summer of 2017, has over 650 Student Space Ambassadors, over 350 founding members so far and an online following of over 700,000 fans and followers. Last year we reached over 10 million people and we anticipate year two to be even bigger!

Mike Simmons (Founder and CEO of "Astronomers without Borders")

I started Astronomers Without Borders to connect people around the world through our common passion. Now we're doing a lot to advance STEM through astronomy, sharing what those of us have in developed countries with others..

Morgan Rehnberg (PhD student at University of Colorado, works with Cassini to study Saturn’s rings) 

I support the Wikimedia Foundation each year because I can't imagine what I'd do for even a day without Wikipedia. Whether it's finding a quick reference for the mass of a moon or a high-resolution copy of the Hubble deep field, basically all the information I could ever want is a click or two away. It's certainly an organization with its share of faults, but I can't imagine the amount of effort it would take to start over from scratch.

Paul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

I think there are many worthy charities. I mentioned one of them in the latest episode (64) of the Unseen Podcast: Doctors Without Borders. As for space or astronomy related charities, I have donated at various times to the SETI Institute, the Planetary Society, and the AAVSO. At the AAVSO, you can adopt the variable star of your choice for $20/year, which is a good way to help them.

Little green/grey men

http://www.thinkaboutit-aliens.com/
There where hundreds of movies and tv-series showing extraterrestials from distant worlds. Giving how life on our planet evolved and considering basic components necessary for intelligent life to emerge, who in your oppinion might have been the closest in depicting alien visitors from outer space? 

Mike Simmons (Founder and CEO of "Astronomers without Borders")

There's really no way to know until we start finding other life. We know the components and evolution of life on Earth but there could be other ways life can be created. Astrobiologists have done a lot of work in this field trying to determine what the possibilities are but without data we're pretty much blind.

The common feature of most TV shows and movies is that intelligent alien life is somewhat humanoid. That makes sense for anything made before computer generated graphics (CGI) since actors are (mostly) human. With CGI anything is possible now but who knows?


Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

I consider myself a science fiction aficionado as well as a (takes a deep breath) UFO buff. It is safe to say, therefore, that I have seen my share of what extraterrestrials “should look like”, according to Hollywood and so-called UFO witnesses. Unfortunately, most, if not all, of these so-called "aliens" are a direct results of anthropomorphic biases – bestowed upon us by the greatest of all special effects artists on one side and alleged UFO encounters on the other.  In a nutshell, the biases have directly shaped what extraterrestrials, from a human perspective, should look like. Most, if not all, of these aliens appear to look strikingly similar to us: a head, two eyes, nose, mouth, two arms, two legs, and in some astonishing situations, they even speak … English. Nonetheless, If I were to chose my favorite “alien”, I would focus on the latest movie The Arrival. These extraterrestrials, which are heptapods, sparked my interested in contemplating what type of planet these aliens could have evolved on. Because they were large and could not breath oxygen, we can speculate that gravity and a unique atmosphere directly influenced these aliens. Nevertheless, The Arrival is science fiction and any portrayal of extraterrestrials, from humans, will unquestionably be wrong.


Nicole Guggliucci (“Noisy astronomer”, blogger, educator, post-doc)

I think it's safe to say that none of us have any CLUE what life might look like... just talk to a biologist to get a sense of the complexity and seeming randomness of life on Earth and its evolutionary pathways.

That said, I loooves me some science fiction and fun speculation. Of course, scifi for tv and film is often limited. In order to tell compelling stories over long periods of time with complex characters, you often need human actors. Thus, we get the "humanoids with bumpy foreheads" in so much of our television and movies. Even with CGI available to us, storytellers will create humanoid forms because that is what we tend to identify with emotionally.

I like to sneak off to books to find truly bizarre descriptions of potential alien sentients. My favorite is the Galactic Football League series by Scott Sigler. Though his universe teems with intelligent creatures with all kinds of bizarre (though, admittedly, often Earth-like) forms, and their physiology determines what positions they play in American football. I can't think of a better way to get a sports fanatic excited about science fiction! It also makes for some bizarre cosplay options when we go to conventions... Anyway, with full color illustrations in some of the books in the series, you can really enjoy the possibilities for sentient species there.


Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

Probably one of the most realistic is 'Contact' with Jody Foster based on Carl Sagan's book of the same name. In a nod to Fermi's Paradox, the Vegans (people of Vega, not non-meat eaters) developed technology first and are thus far more advanced than we are. They don't so much visit Earth as give us a technological boost to help us transcend our basic corporeal bipedal primate existence.



Paul Carr
(Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

To me, science fiction movies and TV shows are not so much about aliens, but about ourselves - human myths, nightmares, hopes, and aspirations. For example, Klaatu in The Day the Earth Stood Still is not alien at all - he is an idealized human, and in fact brings the Christ story into the atomic age. ET seemed to follow a similar pattern, but he wasn't as preachy. Most of the Star Trek aliens are really just exaggerations of human traits that we either fear, admire or detest, and Q is not unlike the all-powerful, omniscient, severely judging God of our Abrahamic religions. I have to admit a mild fascination with the Vulcans. What would it be like to always act rationally?I don't know the answer to that question, but I don't think Vulcans are really all that alien.

Aliens that were really alien would be too hard to understand and would not serve a good role in an entertaining narrative. They would, I expect, be about as far from Dr. Who or Chewbacca as I am from a three-toed sloth. I am not talking about how the aliens look, or how many eyes they have, or whether they swim in a vat of blue liquid - details I regard as relatively unimportant. What you won't see on the surface is how they evolved, which governs to a great extent how they approach and perceive reality and how they think. If, as would be necessary for visitors from other worlds, they are the creators (or at least the heirs) of unimaginably advanced technology, then they think with great power and solve problems we don't even know exist. We don't even understand yet just how alien this would make them, or how absurd and puzzling their motives and actions would be to us. We certainly don't know why there would be here, but it is unlikely to kill us, to eat us, or save us from ourselves.

Such aliens as I imagine, if they exist, would make lousy movie villains or heroes, but I wish someone would try it.



Ciro Villa
(technologist, application developer, STEM communicator)

Although we envision aliens mostly looking like us, there is no reason to not think that some yet to be discovered chemical and organic mechanisms, might exist elsewhere in the Universe that allowed for the rise on other worlds for the formation and rise of species that do not even remotely resemble us.

Just by looking at the shear diversity of Carbon based life forms right here on Earth, gives room to imagine the existence of many other varied types of non-anthropomorphic looking alien being. It is hard to pinpoint one fictional representation of an alien species by one of the many Science fiction artworks. But if one popular franchise comes to mind, that would be Star Trek. In their long running shows, the creator of this, one of the most successful sci-fi/space franchises have been able to present a tremendous diversity of alien species to the audience, thus sparking the light of imagination in the human mind.

Abigail Harrison and Mike Simmons join the panel.

Astronomy/Finest panel has gained two more panelists: Abigal Harrison and Mike Simmons.

aipi_tpAbigail Harrison, known on social media as "Astronaut Abby" is a 19 years old aspiring astronaut and scientist. Her goal is to be the first person to step on Mars. Abby is a founder and spokesperson for The Mars Generation.

mikesimmons_photo

Mike Simmons is a founder and President of "Astronomers Without Borders", a non-profit organization that "brings the world together to share our passion of astronomy and the wonders of the Universe".

Next Giant Leap

It looks like we’re about to become a multiplanetary species in a matter of 10-15 years. Would you choose to risk and become a part of a history as one of the first settlers arriving on Mars or would you wait until it gets safer? What would you take with you to kill boredom on a months long trip?

andrewraderAndrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

The answer to that question depends on the specific circumstances, but I certainly wouldn’t rule out going myself if given the opportunity.

I’d play a lot of board games in computerized form (hopefully some turn-based ones with friends at home). I can do that for weeks on end and be perfectly happy.


sethshostakSeth Shostak (Senior Astronomer and Director of the Center for SETI Research at SETI Institute)

Of course I’d love to go into space, but who knows if they’d TAKE me!

 


imageNicole Guggliucci (“Noisy astronomer”, blogger, educator, post-doc)

You know, when I was younger than I am now, I’d say, “sign me up!” But I think today I’d pass since I like the cool stuff I’m doing here on Earth. When they start needing astronomy professors on Mars, then I’ll go, with the caveat that my dog has to come, too! As for boredom… I have a huge to-read list on my Kindle, so I’m all ready for that. 🙂


frasercain1Fraser Cain (publisher at Universetoday.com, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

Although I’d love to take a safe vacation on Mars, I really love Planet Earth. Living on Mars will be a constant struggle, and that takes a special kind of person, willing to take the risks to push humanity forward. Anyone will to step forward, and is aware of the risks has my support. But personally, I haven’t even finished exploring Earth yet.


paulcarrPaul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

In the unlikely event that I could qualify to go on an early Mars Mission, it is not the risk that would deter me, even though I regard the risks as considerable. The dangers, it seems to me, are roughly comparable to those faced by countless generations of humans before us when they struck out in search of new lands and new freedoms. There are risks of disease, deprivation, and exposure to harsh environments. I have little doubt that at least some of the early Mars pioneers will meet an untimely death. As Geoffrey Landis wrote in his novel Mars Crossing, Mars is for heroes. I believe it eventually will become much more repeatable and safer, but the wait might be too long. I think there will a surplus of volunteers, even after the first deaths. Even those who successfully establish colonies and begin to raise families on Mars will find it tough going with many challenges. I believe the early Mars generations will genetically engineer themselves to adapt better, as well as their plants, and perhaps even their animals.

To kill boredom on the long trip, of course the younger crew members will immerse themselves in VR environments and play games all day when not working out on the treadmill. However, we older folks who remember rotary dial phones and manual transmissions – we will immerse ourselves in VR environments and play games all day.

How to win a Antonio Paris book

img_15835 questions about Antonio Paris (his work and his activities) will be posted on our discussion board. 5 quickest answers to each question will earn points – 5 points for the quickest answer, 4 points for second quickest and so on. Person with the most points after fifth question will win Antonio Paris signed book “Space Science: Challenges for the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis of UFO Phenomena”.

To participate in the competition you must be registered on the discussion board and follow blog’s profile on Twitter.

Details about the questions will be posted on the blog’s Twitter profile (http://twitter.com/astronomyfinest).

Farewell Rosetta!

rosetta-im-all_xlFew weeks ago Rosetta probe deliberately crashed into comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko ending it’s 12 years mission. What did we learn from this mission? What is the most interesting discovery that came from landing on a comet for the first time in history?

Nancy Atkinson (Senior Editor for Universe Today, Host of the NASA Lunar Science Institute podcast & a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador)

nancyatkinson

The Rosetta mission has been an absolute joy to witness, with its great success, surprising findings, and unique public outreach from the team that included cute videos and cartoons. The images have been nothing short of stunning and being able to see a comet close-up like this is just eye-candy: views of cliffs, rockslides and boulders, spraying jets and of course the duck-shaped comet itself.

Some of the discoveries are really exciting, such as finding amino acids that are the building blocks of life on the comet; finding out Comet 67P sings, and finding molecular oxygen. One of the most surprising findings is that the chemical signature of the comet’s water is nothing like what we have on Earth, which contradicts the long-standing theory that comets pummeling Earth supplied our planet with water. Don’t fret the mission is over, as scientists will be studying Rosetta’s observations for years to come, so we’ll definitely be hearing from Rosetta again.


Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

andrewrader

This mission was important for a lot of reasons. From a scientific perspective, it tells us about an object from the far reaches of the Kuiper Belt and probably as old as the formation of the solar system. What are it’s characteristics and composition? Could comets have brought water to Earth, or even the building blocks for life?

From a practical perspective, we learned that we can rendezvous with and land on a type of object that might one day pose a dire threat to our planet. Alternatively, such a comet could potentially be useful in providing raw materials while we hitch a ride far out into space.


Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

antonioparis

Hundreds of years from now, when our ancestors look back at the early years of space exploration, there are no doubts the Rosetta mission will be among the top list of achievements. The rendezvous with comet 67P, which is an achievement of its own, will harness scientific data for generations. Recent mission data, however, has already re-drawn the cometary landscape and astronomers have been left to re-write textbooks when it comes to comets. For example, we have learned 67P interacts with the solar wind, a significant amount of water has been discovered on the comet, and that perhaps comets, at least in this case 67P, was not responsible for bringing water to Earth billions of years ago. We have a lot of work ahead of us and the data from Rosetta will take years to study – an exciting time for astronomers!


Ciro Villa (technologist, application developer, STEM communicator)

cirovilla

Being able for the first time in the history of mankind to approach, orbit and land on a 4 kilometers wide chunk of rock and ice coming from the fringe of our solar system, located at about half a billion kilometers away from us and traveling around the Sun at a velocity of about 135,000 kilometers per hour, was a tremendous feat of human engineering in it of itself. This is exactly what the Rosetta mission has been able achieve during its groundbreaking mission.

Indeed, a vast amount of science has been done by Rosetta during the 786 days of its mission spent around the comet operating in a prohibitive and unforgiving environment. We have learned a great deal more than we used to know about the complexity of the composition of comets such as 67P and we have learned how difficult it is to perform with extreme precision the sort of mission activities that the Rosetta mission team could do and how small the margin of error is for space missions in general and for something as complex as the Rosetta mission.

Despite problems experienced during the touchdown of the Phoebe lander, the Rosetta mission’s team was still able collect a vast trove of scientific data that will be analyzed for decades to come, as well as being able to accomplish a series of important scientific milestones. For instance, among the most outstanding discoveries was that of the presence of a peculiar “songlike” magnetic field probably caused by the solar wind.

Additionally, the discovery of the presence of various molecules originating from the comet ‘s nucleus as well as the presence of water of a different composition of that present here on Earth, were among other findings that have made an impact within the scientific community. All in all, the mission, culminating with the planned crash of Rosetta on the surface of the comet, was a definite success and as a provider of lesson learned, an important precursor for other future missions to small bodies such as asteroid and comets that would have tremendously important value and implications for the future of mankind.

One question

You have the chance to meet in person Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Carl Sagan and you can ask each of them one question. What question would it be?

Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

andrewrader

Galileo Galilei – What do you think about humans visiting the Moon? Isaac Newton – What do you consider your greatest achievement? Albert Einstein – What inspired you to start thinking about the great problems of physics? Carl Sagan – If you could ask Galileo one question, what would it be? (I think he’d have a better answer than I did)


Fraser Cain (publisher at Universetoday.com, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

frasercain1

I really wish I could go back in time and talk to these scientists, especially Galileo. I’m not sure I’d have a lot of questions for them, but I’d love to be able to give them an update on the science they figured out. I could tell Galileo about the moons of Jupiter, and the amazing features we’ve found on them. I could let Newton know about all the discoveries we’ve made about gravity, and how his calculations still form the basis of so much of our science and mathematics. I’d love to let Einstein know that Relativity is still holding strong 100 years after he first described it, including the recent direct detection of gravitational waves. I’m sure Sagan would love an update on the state of Solar System exploration and to learn about what we saw with a flyby of Pluto, or the rovers on Mars.


Nicole Guggliucci (“Noisy astronomer”, blogger, educator, post-doc)

image

Can I trade in my answers with the others and just talk with Carl Sagan? I think I’d ask him a BUNCH about methods of science communication, searching for extraterrestrials, and how to bring us away from the brink of ecological disaster. Maybe that’s cheating, but I’d get a lot more out of a conversation with him than the others!


Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

antonioparis

If I could travel back in time, to where the father’s of modern astronomers lived, I would ask them a variety of questions. Each of these questions, however, would be shaped to fit the era. For Galileo, I would ask him how did you react when you first observed the moon’s of Jupiter? What was your initial reaction? For Newton, I would ask him did an apple actually fall toward your feet, which shaped your curiosity to tackled gravity. For Albert Einstein, I would ask him he he could stop the building of atomic weapons during WWII, would he do it. And, finally, I would ask Carl Sagan … do you believe in God, seriously.

OSIRIS REx

OSIRIS-REx mission will meet with asteroid “Bennu” in 2018, collect samples and return back to Earth. What can we learn from this mission and how important it is? What’s the next best object to collect samples from?

Morgan Rehnberg (PhD student at University of Colorado, works with Cassini to study Saturn’s rings)

morgan

Samples from an asteroid like Bennu will help us understand the conditions out of which planets like Earth formed in the early Solar System. With each new exoplanet discovery, we find more evidence that confounds the traditional model of planetary formation, so this is vital information. If I could sample from elsewhere in the Solar System, I’d pick either Meecury or Mars. We need additional samples from cratered bodies in order to refine our dating methods. Today, the ages of pretty much everything are calibrated solely by the rocks returned from the Moon by the Apollo astronauts!


Paul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

paulcarr

OSIRIS-Rex is not the first asteroid sample return. In fact, when it returns to Earth in 2023, it should be the third sample return, with the Japanese Hayabusa and Hayabusa 2 missions ahead of it. Hayabusa only returned a tiny sample from an S-class asteroid, but it was confirmed to be asteroidal in nature. The NEAR mission launched in the mid 1990s was the first asteroid rendezvous mission, but did not return samples. From my perspective, the most important aspect of studying asteroids is to determine if they are ore-bearing, and I’m not clear if sample return does a whole lot better for that purpose than instruments like an X-ray spectrometer (OSIRS-REX is flying one called REXIS), which can measure the elemental composition. My understanding is that the asteroid Bennu was picked as a target because it is a C type asteroid, and may contain some organic material, which would be of great scientific interest. A sample return will of course provide tremendous detail about the material composing the asteroid’s regolith, and I always hope there will be interesting surprises – maybe even water bearing minerals. So far, the closest look we have had to a C type asteroid was in 1999, when NEAR flew by the main belt asteroid Mathilde. What NEAR saw was surprising – two huge craters in comparison to the size of the body. To absorb impacts that large, Mathilde must be quite low density – a sort of spongy texture. It will be interesting to see if Bennu is similar, and its laser altimeter should enable some precise measurements of its gravity field.


Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

antonioparis

Asteroid Bennu, like all asteroids, is a “time capsule” loaded with vital information regarding the formation of the Solar System. More importantly, the Osiris-Rex mission to Bennu is centered on studying the surface of the asteroid, which is covered in carbonaceous material. This material is a critical element in organic molecules required for life. It is possible, therefore, that the Osiris-Rex mission could finally unlock the secrets to how life on Earth began, and, more importantly, could provide clues for the search for life elsewhere in the Solar System!

To boldly go where no man has gone before

Many associate survival of our species with humanity becoming a interplanetary civilization. It’s important to prepare ourselves for an event that might one day force us to leave our home planet. In more distant future we might have to leave our solar system. Will we ever become an intergalactic civilization like we already are in science-fiction? What’s the hardest obstacle to overcome?

Fraser Cain (publisher at Universetoday.com, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

frasercain1

The hardest obstacle to overcome is the weightless environment of space itself. Humans evolved in Earth’s gravity, and without it, our bones soften, our muscles atrophy, and our bodies suffer. Until we can develop some kind of artificial gravity environment, like a rotating space station, space travel will be lethal for any length of time. We need to first learn to just live and survive in space before we have any hope of reaching out to another star system.


Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

andrewrader

If we survive for the next 100 years, I think we will become an interstellar civilization (although maybe not for several hundred years – the first step is to expand into our solar system first). The greatest challenges are in rough order of difficulty starting with the most challenging: I) Surviving long enough to reach the stars (avoiding disaster on our planet, whether created by humans or something external); II) The will to expand beyond Earth (will we even choose to do so, or will we for example, transcend into AI); III) The vast distances involved and the technological challenges involved. These include the velocity you need to travel and/or time it would take to get to another star, and the energy you would need to be able to produce for an exceedingly long time at a great distance from any light or heat from the Sun (even our best nuclear technology can’t currently do this). It’s a problem of distance, time, and energy. Here’s a links to my videos about it.

Robotic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lt0YMLvgT5k

Human colonization: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0m7gcZLUcPU


Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

antonioparis

Emigrating beyond Earth is not a difficult task from a technological perspective. The current challenges are more centered on budgets rather than technology or human will. The most difficult challenge of interplanetary travel, in my opinion, is the challenge of humanity. Humans, today, are in the brink of destroying ourselves and our planet as well. The human population is increasing at an exponential pace while Earthly resources are diminishing at equal speed. Humans, eventually, will nonetheless have to travel beyond earth to survive as a species. We must, however, overcome the most difficult obstacle we conveniently ignore: the will to get along with other humans.


Pamela Gay (assistant research professor at Southern Illinois University, writer, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

pamelagay

Our science fiction stories show humanity escaping out to the stars, but our more terrestrial reality seems determined to keep us grounded. Two major problems currently face us. The first, quite simply, is resources. Human space exploration is a rich nation’s possibility, and as our global economy flattens, it is becoming harder to imagine any government-driven effort to colonize other worlds and other solar systems. At the same time, it’s impossible to predict what commercial space will make possible, and the extreme wealth of an elite few may be able to fill in gaps left by governments. While money is a current problem that has the potential to go away, the second problem is more likely to stay. That problem is human frailty. We are a race that can die from environmental extremes and disease. We periodically wage war, and we release toxins into our environment through our accidents and ignorance. The real question is, will we stay alive long enough to overcome money?


Ciro Villa (technologist, application developer, STEM communicator)

cirovilla

Be it for natural or man-made causes, there are a variety of possible future scenarios that we earthlings could face that could bring about the end of humanity or even life in its entirety here on Earth. This is why it is important to give serious consideration to plans for us to become a space faring civilization. Although we have a long way to go to arrive at the necessary level of technology and for us to be able to overcome a number of practical obstacles to make this feasible, it is important to start working toward this goal, this way at least our future generations can hope for the continuation of our species by embarking on “space lifeboats” toward new galactic shores. This is not going to be easy and it is going to take time and effort. We are now just making our first “baby steps” toward understanding how the human body reacts to hostile space environments and the lack of gravity and questions about our ability to withstand space environments are just now attempted to be answered with the hard work of our astronauts on the International Space Station. Probably one of the hardest obstacle to overcome is going to be having the ability to take down the barrier of skepticism of large portions of the public as a whole and raise realistic and not alarmist awareness that we live on a very fragile planet and that it is important to build contingency plans to leave it if we want the continuation of our species. Of course we hope that we will be able to achieve this goal before it will be too late.


Paul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

paulcarr

I tend to be skeptical of top-down views of the human future, and the more our species is spread out into the solar system, the more it will diverge, with separate populations each pursuing their own interests. From, this is an optimistic view. The kings and battles view of history has always been something of a delusion, and I think in the future it will become clear, with hopefully no kings and many fewer battles. So, I think the simple-minded notion of a colossal public works project sending great arks full of people in uniform to seed humanity among other worlds is not only unlikely, it is undesirable and likely to fail. Someone with the power to make that happen has too much power. However, I do believe that as mastery of space travel, energy and information compounds, our wealth will grow to the point that the project of embarking with one’s friends and families to the stars is a choice many will have. How this will be accomplished I don’t know, and neither does anyone else, just as the hunter gatherers just before the neolithic revolution could not possibly see what their world was about to become. It is only an approximate result, but Daniel Cartin estimated that the range needed from a starship in order to establish a network of colonies in the local solar neighborhood was about 10 light years. That’s a long distance from the human perspective, but is a cosmic stone’s throw, and when humans can live for hundreds of years and casually command petawatts of power, it will not be a daunting sea to cross. By then, we may not even need to send biological bodies – just beam our minds ahead at the speed of light after the ship arrives at a suitable destination. It would of course, take millions of years to colonize even part of the galaxy, and such a diaspora could easily lose steam after a while. Still there is the chance it will continue until we either collide the current residents or fill up the available resources. Of course, by “we” I mean descendants of humans, but they will be fragmented into at least as many many societies as solar systems they occupy. There will be no emperor. How we go from there to an intergalactic society I have no idea. Crossing ten, or even a hundred light years is nothing compared to crossing millions of light years. Each of is free to imagine their own scenario, but I have no idea how it could happen.