Destination: Mars

Mars will become a touristic destination in a matter of 20 years. At what price for a round trip would you consider buying a ticket? What safety concerns would have to be met to sway you over?
Ciro Villa (technologist, application developer, STEM communicator)

First and foremost, whether Mars will become a tourist destination in the next 20 years or not, it's still to be seen and subject to debate. There are still several critical hurdles to be overcome: financial, technical and societal just to name some of the main ones. As of today, these hurdles make just the prospect of humans traveling, let alone landing and settling on the red planet all but trivial and extremely challenging. Initially when human travel to the Red planet will begin, only trained astronauts will venture and embark in the journey that will no doubt be filled with difficulties and perils.

When and if we will finally be able to achieve tourism to Mars, prices will at the beginning undoubtedly be highly prohibitive and most likely out of reach for a large swat of the human population. I personally would most likely not be able to afford the journey in my lifetime. It is indeed hard to place a fair price tags with so many unknowns still in place.

If we let our fantasy go wild, then I would envision that in another 100 to 150-year technology will have advanced to the point to allow for “affordable” and safe commutes with round trips to Mars. I frankly still don’t know what exactly that price tag might or should be.

In terms of safety, it is also almost impossible to pinpoint what would be an acceptable threshold of risk metrics that would make me comfortable enough to embark in the journey with a relative degree of confidence that my trip would not be the last of my life. As mentioned in the beginning, obstacles to be overcome in terms of human planetary travel survivability still abound and only after several iterations, including discoveries, advancement in science and technology and lesson learned, would I believe that a journey to the Red Planet might be safe and enjoyable.

Fraser Cain (publisher at Universetoday.com, co-host of Astronomy Cast)

I'm probably less adventurous than most people. I really love Earth, and I've barely explored this amazing planet and all it offers. I'd want to know that a trip to and from Mars is relatively safe and much much quicker before I was willing to make that journey. I'd do a few months on Mars to see some of the highlights and then I'd like to come home. I would like to experience lower gravity, but that would be even better on the Moon, which is only a few days away.

Paul Carr (Space Systems engineer at NASA, podcaster, blogger, investigator)

I've little doubt that the first tourist tickets to Mars will only be affordable by the wealthy or those able to obtain corporate sponsorship. The cheaper option is likely to be one way ticket, but still far beyond the means of all but a few of us. An optimistic price for a one way ticket in the early days is probably $5 million USD, but it's probably much more than that until Mars travel is far more efficient than it is now. Perhaps I could raise enough for a one way ticket, which I would have to consider if my health holds up long enough. A few million dollars, for the price of wearing corporate logos on my flight suit, might be possible for me.

I don't expect Mars travel to be as safe as getting on a cruise ship or an airliner for a long time to come. We can probably find efficient ways to address such threats as infectious diseases in a closed space, radiation exposure, or social meltdowns, so that the biggest risks are launch and landing. We shouldn't get into the same mentality we had in the early days of the Space Shuttle, with a delusional notion of how safe it is. After the Challenger tragedy in 1986, there was no shortage of astronaut candidates. Some people are willing to take risks if the reward is there. Many people have died leaping off of cliffs in a wingsuit, or climbing high peaks - not because they don't know what the risks are, but because they accept them and proceed nonetheless. We may never lose as many Mars tourists as the 290 people who have died climbing Everest, but it does seem that some will meet their destiny there. Those who fear the risks should stay on Earth, where they will also die when their time comes.

If I could choose, I'd choose to die on another planet.

Nancy Atkinson (Senior Editor for Universe Today, Host of the NASA Lunar Science Institute podcast & a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador)

Ah yes, this is what I jokingly call "The Mars Plan," where getting to Mars is a thing that is always 20 years off into the future, no matter when. Humans on Mars was touted as being 20 years away in the 1970's and it is still 20 years away today. Are we actually any closer now to accomplishing this great feat than we were in the 1970's? I'm not very confident that we are. There are still many technical hurdles to leap, like making the trip shorter than 7 months, being able to land large payloads on Mars, and developing habitats and life support systems that are truly foolproof. If someone dies on the first human mission to Mars, that will be the end of it. Also, this is going to cost a lot of money, and there will have to be a payoff in some fashion, whether it is mining, tourism or an Earth-catastrophe management endeavor.

As a journalist, I'm secretly hoping that someone will pay *me* to go to Mars so I can write about it! Otherwise, I don't think I'll ever have enough cash to do it on my own.

Curiosity

It's been 13 years since NASA's Opportunity rover is exploring Mars. In your oppinion what is it's most important discovery to date? Is it our most succesful Mars rover? Will the next Mars rover (planned for touchdown on Mars surface in 2020) have to chance to achieve even more? What would you personally like to see as it's scientific payload?
Andrew Rader (SpaceX engineer, MIT PhD, author)

Perhaps the greatest discovery of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers has been to study the water cycle on Mars and yield clues as to how ice and frost moves about the planet with seasons and weather, although it would be hard to argue that Opportunity's greatest achievement isn't its marathon longevity. Curiosity and the 2020 Rover are much more capable than Opportunity so should interact more with the planet and (presuming a long mission) may even eventually travel farther. I think the most important experiments going forward are related to the search for water and life on Mars, and starting to conduct experiments on use and conversion of local resources like the production of methane, oxygen, and liquid water.

Nancy Atkinson (Senior Editor for Universe Today, Host of the NASA Lunar Science Institute podcast & a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador)

I think its interesting that basically everywhere Curiosity has traveled, it is finding evidence of past water. From the rounded pebbles that were worn by flowing water to the mudstone and sandstone features, to the layered rock formations that could only be laid down in large amounts of water, it appears that Gale Crater was at one time filled with water. And that's intriguing because we know on Earth, everywhere there is water, there is life. Curiosity has been finding these features and potentially habitable environments almost since it landed, so the choice of Gale Crater as the landing site appears to have been the perfect place to explore!

I'm really looking forward to the Mars 2020 rover, especially how it should be able to test ways for future human explorers to use the resources available on Mars to ‘live off the land.’ Also, it should help us understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrating technologies to process carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce oxygen, which could be used for the production of fuel. 

Antonio Paris (Astronaut Candidate, Astronomy Professor, Planetary Scientist, Space Science Author)

The Mars rover Opportunity has made many groundbreaking achievements in the exploration on Mars. Its greatest achievement, in my opinion, does categorically fall into science or technology. I believe that Opportunity’s greatest achievement is that it served as an “extension” to the human eye, thus allowing us to explore a far distant world where humans are still decades away from making landfall. Additionally, none of the rovers on Mars are more successfully than the other. Each robotic mission to Mars had a specific purpose and it was their cumulative discoveries that have made the exploration of Mars a success thus far. Moving forward, there is an assortment of Mars rovers that will one day take the helm for Opportunity. As technology continues to improve, I sure hope a HD live cam makes it way into the next rover’s payload!